Overcome Gender Bias in Funding

There is an unconscious bias among venture capitalists that is preventing female entrepreneurs from securing more funding, new research suggests.

A study set to be published in an upcoming issue of the Academy of Management Journal revealed that venture capitalists have different expectations of men and women entrepreneurs, which in turn impacts how much, if any, money they give them.

The research argues that the bias comes in the form of the questions venture capitalists pose to entrepreneurs when trying to learn more about their startups. Specifically, women are asked questions that focus on how they won’t lose a venture capitalist’s money, while the questions to men focus on how much money they can make.

“Female entrepreneurs are implicitly expected to prove that they can execute a safe return for the investor, whereas male entrepreneurs are instead expected to show the opportunity can grow,” the study’s authors wrote.

In turn, the answers the entrepreneurs give match the focus of those questions. The researchers said this prompts female business owners to position their startups as “playing not to lose,” referred to as prevention-focused, while men are better able to position themselves as “playing to win,” referred to as promotion-focused – the latter of which is much more appealing to investors.

The study’s authors said the unconscious bias comes from investors of both genders.

“Both male and female venture capitalists display implicit bias, holding men and women to different standards, [which] implies that the funding disparity cannot be corrected by merely ensuring that more female VCs are in a position to evaluate investment opportunities,” the study’s authors wrote.

Researchers came to their conclusions after analyzing the questions posed by venture capitalists at TechCrunch Disrupt, a startup competition held annually in major cities around the world. Since its launch in 2009, entrepreneurs who have presented at the competition have raised about $7 billion in venture funding over their lifetimes.

For part of the research, the study’s authors looked at data involving 189 startups that presented at the New York competitions organized by TechCrunch Disrupt from 2010 through 2016. The researchers specifically looked at video footage of Q&As between each company’s founder and a panel of venture capitalists. After transcribing all of the videos, they were able to determine the balance between promotion focus and prevention focus in company-panel interactions and the relationship of this balance to companies’ funding achievements over time.

How Much Cash Will You Need

If you’re thinking about launching a new business, you may not know where to start with your finances. Of course, you’ll need a decent amount of cash flow to maintain your company. However, if you are organized and thorough, you can plan out your financing and keep your startup budget on track.

Here’s how to figure out approximately how much you’ll need to launch your business.

 

Start small

You most likely have high expectations for your company. However, blind optimism may cause you to invest too much money too quickly. At the very beginning, it’s smart to keep an open mind and prepare for issues that may arise, experts say.

Cynthia McCahon, founder and CEO of business-plan software company Enloop, said business owners should start with a bit of healthy skepticism.

“A prospective business owner should start planning a small business by simply understanding the potential of the business idea,” McCahon told Business News Daily. “What this means is not assuming your idea will be successful.”

The best approach is to test your idea in a small, inexpensive way that gives you a good indication of whether customers actually need your product and how much they’re willing to pay for it, McCahon said. If the test seems successful, then you can start planning your business based on what you learned. [See Related Story: Creative Financing Methods for Startups]

 

Estimate your costs

While every type of business has its own financing needs, there are some tips that can help you figure out how much cash you’ll require. Entrepreneur Drew Gerber, who started a technology company, a publicity firm and a financial planning company, estimates that an entrepreneur will need six months’ worth of fixed costs on hand at startup.

“Have a plan to cover your expenses in the first month,” Gerber said. “Identify your customers before you open the door so you can have a way to start covering those expenses.”

When planning your costs, don’t underestimate the expenses, and remember that they can rise as the business grows, Gerber said. It’s easy to overlook costs when you’re thinking about the big picture, but you should be more precise when planning for your fixed expenses, he added.

Indeed, underestimating costs can decimate your company, McCahon said.

“One of the main reasons most small businesses fail is that they simply run out of cash,” she said. “Writing a business plan without basing your forecasts on reality often leads to an unfortunate, and often unnecessary, business failure. Without the benefit of experience or actual historical financials, it’s easy to overestimate a new company’s revenue and underestimate costs.”

A Funding Match Made in Heaven

Equity crowdfunding, a method of raising capital from small-dollar investors implemented by Title III of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act, came online nearly a year ago. The measure was touted as an alternative way to finance both early-stage and local companies that might have trouble securing a loan or attracting more conventional investors.

By its nature, equity crowdfunding is a horizontal endeavor; companies soliciting small investments register with the SEC through an intermediary platform and begin to build capital toward their goal. If they reach that goal, they receive the funding and the investors officially become shareholders. One intermediary platform, GrowthFountain, saw an opportunity to merge the concept of equity crowdfunding with another kind of horizontal institution: the credit union.

Credit unions are financial institutions similar to banks, except for one major difference: Credit unions are not for-profit entities, but rather cooperatives. Each account holder in a credit union is a part owner that retains a democratic stake in the institution and receives dividends in the form of more favorable interest rates, whether it’s on deposits or loans. Marrying equity crowdfunding with credit unions was a no-brainer, said Ken Staut, CEO of GrowthFountain.

“When we formed GrowthFountain and thought about crowdfunding, a lightbulb kind of went off over my head,” Staut told Business News Daily. “Our mission has so many similarities with a credit union’s. We’re both focused on people helping people and community development.”

 

The intersection of equity crowdfunding and credit unions

After Staut realized equity crowdfunding and credit unions should go together, he reached out to Callahan & Associates, a prominent credit union think tank, to gauge some of the unions’ interest in offering access to GrowthFountain’s equity crowdfunding platform. It turned out interest was immense, Staut said. Although the company is still early in the process, it already has three credit union partners: Digital Credit Union, a top 10 credit union with 620,000 members across 50 states; Massachusetts-based Jeanne D’Arc Credit Union with 85,000 members; and Oregon-based Rivermark Community Credit Union, also with 85,000 members.

About a dozen more contracts are in the works, and Staut estimates that when the ink is dry, GrowthFountain’s equity crowdfunding platform will be available to roughly 3 million credit union members nationwide.

Each credit union leverages GrowthFountain’s platform, but the branding and imagery is all unique to the credit union that’s offering it to members. The foremost businesses displayed on each site are unique to the geographic region in which the credit union operates as well, meaning members can invest in local companies – maybe even ones they visit and patronize.

 

Keeping the money in the local economy

Equity crowdfunding boasts the ability to keep wealth in local communities, which complements the financial cooperative nature of credit unions. When investors are regular people receiving small dividends, instead of large venture capitalist firms or private angel investors in far-off cities, the money tends to remain in smaller economies.

“These credit unions are jumping at the opportunity to add equity crowdfunding as a tool for their members,” Staut said. “The profits [from crowdfunded companies] stay local and recirculate in that economy, so I think the potential for us to work with credit unions to support local businesses is something you wouldn’t usually get from a conventional bank.”

There are limits, however, to how much equity individual investors can purchase. Under the Title III equity crowdfunding rules, investors with either a net worth or annual income below $100,000 are restricted from investing more than 5 percent of their annual income or net worth, whichever is less. Those with a net worth or income greater than $100,000 remain restricted to 10 percent, and no investor may purchase more than $100,000 in securities in one year through all crowdfunded offerings.

Market Your Equity Crowdfunding Campaign

Equity crowdfunding, a creation of the 2012 Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act, is an alternative way for startups and small businesses to crowdsource capital from investors and consumers who are passionate about their products or services. However, running an equity crowdfunding campaign can be difficult; there are many startups vying for the crowd’s dollars, and making your voice heard in a sea of exciting ideas can be difficult.

The success of these types of campaigns largely rides on how you market your company to the crowd. Establish a unique brand and a voice that cuts through the clutter, and you’ll get you the capital you need to get moving. Fail to forge an essential emotional connection, and your equity crowdfunding campaign could end in failure. Here’s how to make sure your crowdfunding endeavor pays off in both capital raise and brand awareness. [Want to start an equity crowdfunding campaign? Read this first.]

 

1. Know your audience and cultivate relationships.

The first step toward any successful equity crowdfunding campaign is to understand your audience. What are their needs or desires? Why would they support your product? Even more importantly, why would they be passionate about your product? Forging an emotional connection starts with understanding your potential supporters and catering to their needs, both with a quality product and impactful storytelling.

“Emotional connection really comes when you understand your audience and the people you’re trying to reach,” said Chris Westfall, a pitch strategist and author of “Bulletproof Branding” (Marie Street Press, 2014). “Oftentimes for entrepreneurs, this means look for the impact. Giving people something to believe in, that emotional connection, that’s what [draws the crowd].”

Reaching the correct audience is also a matter of medium and messaging, said Mark Stanich, president with the ELEQT Group. High-quality photos and video are huge boosts when it comes to marketing ideas; allowing potential investors to place themselves in the shoes of a satisfied customer brings them one step closer to understanding the value of your idea. It’s also imperative to speak to the things that make your idea stand out from the rest.

“In terms of actual messaging, why is it different than competition? How does it fit a true need or desire for your lifestyle? Is it simple to use? [Does it] free up time to do other things? Make life easier?” Stanich said. “There’s this area of social investing that’s becoming very important … If you can speak to those things, you build this emotional bond. Obviously, financial return is important in equity crowdfunding, but I think that’s not enough. I think many people want to support something they really believe in.”

 

2. Keep it simple.

Keep your message simple. Overwhelming audiences with too much information or the slew of benefits your product provides – even if they’re all valid – is a surefire way to lose their attention. The shorter and sweeter your pitch, the better.

“You need a simple, distilled description of your product,” Stanich said. “People often launch something and love it and want to go on and on about it, but that’s complicated and noisy. There are lots of other competing products, so you need to keep it very, very simple.

“As you go further down the path of investment, you can flesh the benefits out and talk more and more,” he added.

Consistency and simplicity go hand in hand. That means aligning your brand with the right platforms, speaking to the right audience with the right message, and selling the right idea, Westfall said.

“You want alignment every step of the way,” he told Business News Daily. “Choose the right platform and you’ll reach the right people. But if you have the right idea in the wrong platform, that still adds up to the wrong idea. You want to be careful and deliberate about picking your alignment, from the platform you choose, to the way you approach it, to the methods you use.”

 

3. Build a strong brand.

Without a clear brand and associated message for your campaign, it’s easy to miss opportunities to engage potentially interested investors. On the other hand, if your brand is successful and consistent, it will be much easier to initially grab people and encourage them to investigate your idea further.

“A broad crowdfunding platform gives you a place to stand in the market square, but they don’t give you a megaphone,” Stanich said. “Successful campaigns have [an] existing connections base already with people passionate about [their] product, or if they don’t already have a big base to tap into or influence, they build an emotional bond with passionate people. That’s when you start to get viral pickup … That’s when you see successful campaigns.”

Keep You from Getting a Small Business Loan

For many entrepreneurs, a small business loan is an essential way to finance a new business or expand existing operations. However, obtaining funding for your business is no easy task. Here are six barriers that can prevent you from getting the small business loan you need and a few tips on how to avoid these roadblocks.

 

1. Poor credit history

Credit reports are one tool lenders use to determine a borrower’s credibility. If your credit report shows a lack of past diligence in paying back debts, you might be rejected when applying for a loan.

Paul Steck, former president and CEO of the international franchise restaurant Saladworks, has worked with hundreds of small business franchisees, many of whom have bad personal credit as a result of illness, divorce or other extenuating circumstances.

“Sometimes, very good people, for reasons beyond their control, have credit issues,” Steck said. “And, unfortunately, that’s a real barrier to entry in the world of small business.”

People with bad credit should consider nontraditional financing options — which tend to place less emphasis on credit scores — before giving up on getting a loan.

 

2. Limited cash flow

Cash flow — a measure of how much cash you have on hand to pay back a loan — is usually the first thing lenders look at when gauging the health of your business. Insufficient cash flow is a flaw that most lenders can’t afford to overlook. Therefore, it’s the first thing business owners should consider when determining if they can afford a loan.

“Really thinking through that cash-flow equation is like preventative medicine for your business,” said Jay DesMarteau, head of regional commercial specialty segments for TD Bank. “You can either wait until [your business] gets sick, or you can do things to prevent it from getting sick.”

One of the preventative measures DesMarteau recommends is to calculate cash flow at least quarterly. If business owners take that step, they may be able to optimize their cash flow before approaching potential lenders.

 

3. Lacking a plan for the future

Having a plan and sticking to it is much more attractive than spontaneity in the finance world.

“Banks require that business owners have an organized, detailed and quantitative business plan in order to move forward with the loan process,” said David Goldin, CEO, president and founder of Capify, an alternative small business lender.

However, Goldin noted that it’s common for very small businesses to not have a formal business plan or any plan at all, for that matter. In these situations, he recommends that business owners at least forecast their future earnings before applying for a loan, so lenders will have an idea of your profitability.

You should also be prepared to explain your plan for the money you want to borrow.

“Lenders’ … biggest single complaint is that small business owners aren’t able to articulate very well how they’re going to use the capital that they’re looking for, how they’re going to make repayment and what impact they think [the loan] is going to have,” said Ty Kiisel, who writes about small business for online lender OnDeck.